Black gram seeds are eaten as a pulse, direct or in various preparations (whole or split, boiled or roasted, ground into flour for cake, bread or porridge). It is with the flour of black gram that in India the flat biscuits ‘papadum’ are made. Seed sprouts are also consumed. Green pods are eaten as a cooked vegetable. Small quantities of the pods and foliage are used to supplement cattle feed or as forage. Sometimes black gram is sown as a cover crop and for green manure. The pod walls are fed to cattle. Flour from the seed is used as a substitute for soap; it makes the skin soft and smooth. In traditional medicine, the seed is used for its suppurative, cooling and astringent properties, e.g. pounded and applied as a poultice on abscesses.
Seed & Planting Data:
-Family: Leguminosae – Papilionoideae, Fabaceae
-Plant Type: Annual Bush; Taprooted.
-Seed Type: Desiccant.
-Seed Weight: 1000-seed weight is 15–60 g.
-Soil pH: 6-7
-Planting Depth: 20-40 mm
-Seed Spacing: (Comare to Cowpea of Mung Bean)
-Seeds For Acre Coverage:
-Seeds For Hectare Coverage: 10–30 kg
-Soil Temp. For Germination:
-Special Germination Instructions:
-Germination Booster Chemicals:
-Expected Germination Rate: 2-98% germination following 12 years open storage at room temperature.
-Days to Germination: 7–10 days
-Ideal Temp. Conditions: 25°C-35°C. Drought and high temperature tolerant.
-Water Usage: Rain-watered (annual rainfall of 600-1000 mm).
-Ideal Crop Season:
-Plant Spacing After Thinning (rows/hills):
-Companions / Inter-crops: Maize / Corn, Peanut, Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), Cotton, sugarcane, sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet.
-Special Crop Uses: Human Food Staple, Fodder, Fixes Nitrogen, Soil Improvement, Green Manure.
-Pest Threats: White Fly & Thrips
-Disease Threats: Yellow mosaic virus (MYMV), Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora sp.), web blight (Rhizoctonia solani, synonym: Thanatephorus cucumeris) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni, synonym: Erysiphe betae).
-Special Soil Requirements: Sensitive to saline and alkaline soils.
-Fertilizer Requirements: Minimal.
-Ability To Compete With Weeds:
-Height: 30-100 cm
-Pollen Cross Contamination Risk: Low.
-Days To Harvest: 60–140 days
-Seed Harvesting Methods: Hand; Uproot & Thresh (after 7 days).
-Harvest Yield: 340-1500 kg dry seeds/ha in India.
-Preservation: Dried Seeds.
-Seed Pests: Bruchid Beetle Larvae (Callosobruchus spp.)
-Seed Shelf Life:
-Food Safety: N/A
-Nutrition (seed): Per 100 g edible portion: water 8.6 g, energy 1470 kJ (351 kcal), protein 25.1 g, fat 1.8 g, carbohydrate 61.0 g, crude fibre 4.4 g, Ca 196 mg, Mg 260 mg, P 575 mg, Fe 6.8 mg, Zn 3.1 mg, vitamin A 114 IU, thiamin 0.36 mg, riboflavin 0.28 mg, niacin 1.8 mg, vitamin B6 0.28 mg, folate 628 μg and ascorbic acid 4.8 mg. The essential amino-acid composition of black gram seeds per g nitrogen is: tryptophan 65 mg, lysine 415 mg, methionine 91 mg, phenylalanine 365 mg, threonine 217 mg, valine 351 mg, leucine 518 mg and isoleucine 319 mg (Haytowitz & Matthews, 1986). Black gram seeds have shown anti-atherogenic activity in guinea pigs.
In India it is variously called urad, urad dal, udad dal, urd bean, urd, urid, maas (in Nepali), or උඳු (Sinhala, đậu đen Vietnamese, literally: black bean). It is known as uzhunu (ഉഴുന്ന്) in Malayalam, minumulu (మినుములు) in Telugu, uddina bele (ಉದ್ದಿನ ಬೇಳೆ) in Kannada, ulunthu(உளுந்து) in Tamil, French: Haricot velu; Italian: Fagiolo Urd; German: Linsenbohne, adad (અળદ) in Gujarati and biri dali in Oriya; Urd, Urd bean, Wooly pyrol, Black gram, Mash, Adad, Amberique, Balatong, Biri, Chiroko, Choroko, Dau-muoi, Grao de pulha, Haricot mungo, Harcot velu, Illundu, Kachang hijau, Kachang hitam, Kalai, Kambulu, Kifudu, Mahasha, March, Mung bean, Frijol mungo, Mate mah, Matikalai, Udad, Ulundu, Minumulu, Mat-pe, Munggo, Siu tau.
Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis)
Catjang (Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica)
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata)
Creeping Vigna (Vigna parkeri ssp. maranguensis)
Dalrymple Vigna (Vigna luteola)
Dune Bean (Vigna marina)
Maloga Bean or Yam (Vigna lanceolata)
Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia)
Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata)
Urd (Vigna mungo)
Wild Cowpea (Vigna vexillata var. youngiana)
Plant Germplasm (definition): Any portion of genetic material that can be grown into a live plant. Examples include seeds, stem cuttings (via many methods including air layering), root cuttings, root divisions (multiplication via division), leaf cuttings, leaf fragments (in tissue culture), rooted nodes (vines), “eyes” (offshoots from potato tubers), cacti pieces, etc. The term germplasm can also be used to describe a collection of genetic resources for an organism such as as a seed collection or, for trees, a nursery.
EXCLUSIVE: All live plants, bulbs and recalcitrant seeds are regularly inoculated with numerous strains of beneficial symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi & bacteria (listed below) essential for strong healthy plant roots. Generally this is one of the last aspects of horticultural science that gardeners learn about when it should be the first. Beneficial Ectomycorrhiza: Laccaria bicolor, Laccaria laccata, Pisiolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon amylopogon, Rhizopogon fulvigleba, Rhizopogon luteolus, Rhizopogon roseolus, Rhizopogon subcaerulescens, Rhizopogon villosulus, Rhizopogon vulgaris, Scleroderma cepa, Scleroderma citrinni, Suillus granulatus, Suillus punctatepies Beneficial Endomycorrhiza: Gigaspora brasilianum, Gigaspora margarita, Gigaspora monosporum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus deserticola, Glomus entunicatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus monosporum, Glomus mosseae Beneficial Tricoderma: Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii Beneficial Bacteria: Acidovorax facilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter polymxa, Bacillus azotoformans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Cellulomonas flavigena, Paenibacillus dorum, Paenibacillus florescence, Paenibacillus gordonae, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Psuedomonas aureofaceans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of these strains are available in water soluble form in "Myco Madness" (available here at M.S.B.).
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