Benzolive, Drumstick Tree, Mother’s Best Friend, West Indian Ben, the Tree of Life, Miracle Tree, Horseradish Tree, Radish tree, Tree of Paradise
Moringa pterygosperma; M. moringa Small
All 13 Moringa species:
Moringa Arborea – Moringa Borziana – Moringa Concanensis – Moringa Drouhardii – Moringa Hildebrandtii – Moringa Longituba – Moringa Oleifera – Moringa Ovalifolia – Moringa Peregrina – Moringa Pygmaea – Moringa Rivae – Moringa Ruspoliana – Moringa Stenopetala
The Romans, Greeks and Egyptians extracted edible oil from the seeds and used it for perfume and skin lotion. In the 19th century, plantations of Moringa in the West Indies exported the oil to Europe for perfumes and lubricants for machinery. People in the Indian sub-continent have long used Moringa pods for food. The edible leaves are eaten throughout West Africa and parts of Asia.
Moringa is a slender softwood tree that branches freely, and can be extremely fast growing. Although it can reach heights in excess of 10 m (33 ft), it is generally considered a small to medium-size tree. Tripinnate compound leaves are feathery with green to dark green elliptical leaflets 1–2 cm (0.4–0.8 in) long. The tree is often mistaken for a legume because of its leaves. Conspicuous, lightly fragrant flowers are borne on inflorescences 10–25 cm (4–10 in) long, and are generally white to cream colored, although they can be tinged with pink in some varieties. The fruit is a trilobed capsule, and is frequently referred to as a “pod.” Immature pods are green and in some varieties have some reddish color. Pods are brown and dry at maturity and contain 15–20 seeds. Seeds are large with three papery wings. Seed hulls are generally brown to black, but can be white if kernels are of low viability. Viable seeds germinate within 2 weeks.
As with most plants, Moringa prefers well draining soil, with one ideal mixture being 67% peat moss and 33% coarse vermiculite. 1
Growing From Seed:
Seeds can be planted as soon as they are mature. Before sowing, crack the seed shell with your fingernail and soak the seeds in water overnight. Then plant the seeds 2″ apart and 1″ deep. Seeds more than a few months old should have the inner seed embryo inspected. Do this by cracking the outer shell with your fingernail and chipping it away. If the white body doesn’t quite amply fill the inside of the shell then it should be completely removed and soaked in Hydrogen Peroxide for 1-2 hours. They should swell up to being about the size expected to fill their original shell cavities. Now soak in water for 4-8 hours, and then plant as you would. Water lightly and they should germinate in 10-30 days. Thin & space as needed, and expect to start topping the plants at several feet of height to prevent them from growing straight upwards to excessive heights.
Propagation Via Cuttings:
Make stem cuttings during rainy season using healthy hard wood branches from a tree that is at least one year old. Avoid using young green stem tissue. The cuttings can be 45–150 cm long with diameters of 4–16 cm. Green wood should be trimmed without damaging the bark of the hardwood. Cuttings should be dried in the shade for three days before planting. Cuttings are then planted directly in the ground, or planted in plastic pots or bags. Only plant the lower 1/3 of the stem length into the soil. When planting directly, plant them in light, sandy soil. When planting in polybags, use a soil ratio of 3 parts soil to 2 parts sand. As with any most any unrooted cuttings in general, Moringa is best kept out of full direct sun initially. Irrigate regularly to keep the soil moist but not wet. Potted cuttings should ready for field planting after 2–3 months.
Propagation Via Air-Layering:
Moringa does not propogate well by air-layering, as air-layered cuttings tend to only sprout during the February/March period.
Moringa as a Source of Plant Growth Regulators:
Being rich in zeatin, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, phenolic compounds, and minerals, Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract (MLE) has the potential to promote plant growth; hence, it is used as a natural plant growth enhancer. Zeatin plays an important role in cell division and cell elongation. Seed priming with diluted MLE has been reported to effectively improve germination and seedling growth in maize. Ascorbic acid priming and foliar application have been reported to be growth- and yield-improving tools in various crops, especially under saline conditions. Calcium and potassium play essential roles in crop growth and development through osmoregulation, enzyme activation, photosynthesis, and various other physiological processes. 1
Crude Methods of Making MLE for Plant Growth Stimulation Purposes:
-guide coming soon-
International Common Names):
Kelor, Marango, Mlonge, Mulangay, Saijhan, Sajna, marrunggai, malunggai, kalamunggai, katdes, sajina, bèn ailé, Benzolive, Ben oléifère, Arbre radis du cheval, Behenbaum, Behenussbaum, Flügelsaniger bennussbaum, Pferderettichbaum, Sàndalo ceruleo, Acácia branca, Marungo, Muringa, Moringuiero; Cedro, Árbol del ben, Ben, Morango, Moringa, Kpashima, Yuru ara, Yorwata, Yoroguma, Ékwè kpatin, Kpajima, Yovo vigbe, Yovo kpati, Tekpinda, Guildandeni, Latj iri, Legi-Lakili, Kotba, Yori kununfa, Ewé ilé, igablé, Ewé ilé, Ewé oyibo (White man’s tree), Agun, Manyieninu, Ayere, Oyibo, La-Banyu, Ardjeneyiri, Ardjian jirri, Alj an-tiiga, Ki gambaga, Diegu kanlobuga, Aljannahi, Guilgandani, Gigandjah, Argentiga, Arzan tiiga, Paizlava, Guiligandja, Giligandjahi, Djhiré, Naa-toukoré, Chabané, Naa-nko, Kag n’dongue, Alim, Halim, Anambo, Mvungué, Atiuwuse, Babati, Babatsi, Kpotowuzie, Kpokpoti, Nukunaya, Yevu-ti, Yevutsi, Obnukuo, Ornyyukuo, Zangala, Mlonge, Mronge, Mrongo, Mlongo, Mzunze, Mzungu., Mjungu moto, Mboga chungu, Shingo, Mborongi, Anamambo, Anamorongo, Feliimorongo, Felikambo, Felikamoranga, Landihazo, Moringa, Moringy, Cham’mwanba, Kangaluni, Sangoa, Shangoa, Nsangoa, Kalokola, Maula tengo, Mpundi, Muula, Mbula, Mpempu, Chakate, Mpenba, Jirini, Kandjirini, Manjirini, Massa Jirini, Verdaye, Drède mouroungue, Zôgala gandi, Windi-bundu, Gawara, Gaware, Konamarade, Rini maka, Habiwal hausa, Bagaruwar maka, Bagaruwar masar, Barambo, Koraukin zaila, Rimin nacara, Rimin turawa, Samarin danga, Shipka hali, Shuka halinka, Zogall, Zogalla-gandi, Odudu oyibo,Okwe oyibo,Okwe olu,Uhe,Oku-ghara-ite, Okochi egbu, Chigban Wawa, Adagba malero, Ewele, Ewé ilé, Ewe igbálé, Idagbo monoyé, Neverday, Nébéday, Sap-Sap, Drède mouroungue, Boganja, Mrongo, Ruwag, Alim, Halim, Shagara al ruwag, Anid, Shagara zaki al moya, Mlonge, Mronge, Mrongo, Mlongo, Mzunze, Mzungu., Mjungu moto, Mboga chungu, Shingo, Baganlua, Bagaelean, Kpotima, Kpoti, Yevu-ti, Yovoviti, Mágurua maser, Yovoviti, Gambaduk, Jevoti, Jovoviti, Amedoti, Ekpoti, Molo-Kpoti, Zagalanda, Zakalanda, Mupulanga, Dandalun, Daintha, Dandalun-bin, Dandalonbin, Ben ailé, Daem mrum, Munga ara, Sajna, Sojna, Sujana, Midho-saragavo, Saragavo, Saragvo, Suragavo, Munga ara, Shajmah, Shajna, Segra, Sanjna, Saijna, Shajna, Soandal, Nugga egipa, Nugge, Noogay, Nuggi Mara, Mulgia, Munga ara, Mungna, Sunara, Moosing, Mosing, Sigru, Moringa, Muringa, Murinna, Morunna, Sujna, Shevga, Shivga, Mangnai, Sejana, Munigha, Sajina, Sanjina, Soanjana, Lal Sahinjano, Danshamula, Shobhanjana, Sigru Shobhanjan, Sobhan jana, Swanjera, Morunga, Murungai, Murunkak-kai, Sajana, Tella-Munaga, Sahajna, Mulaka, Saihan, Sundan, Sweta Maricha, Maroenga, Motong, Kelor, Tjelor, Moltong, Kelor, Marongghi, Oho Gaairi, Kafok, Kai fok, Kalor, Kerore, Kawona, Wona, Kelo, Oege Kelo, Baoe fo, Maroenga, Remoenggai, Sajor Kelor, B’Loum, Kachang Kelur, Lemunggai, Meringgai, Semunggai, Smunggai, Semunggai, Remunggai, Sitachini, Saijan, Sohanjna, Kalungai, Kamalungua, Malongai, Malungai, Mulanggay, Malunkai, Alúngai, Dool, Malungit, Komkompilan, Dool, Kamalungua, Malúngit, Rúnggai, Marongai, Marungai, Aroenggai, Kaanaeng-doeng, Phak eehuem, Phak eehum, Phak-nuea-kai, Se-cho-ya, Ma rum, Ma khonkom, Chum Ngay, Saisam, Maranga calalu, Mawonga, Aceite, Aceitoso, Angela, Colirio, Goma, Jeringa, Marango, Maranjo, Marangon, Sen de la tierra, Acacia, Ben, Calicita, Leno nefrítico, Palo blanco, Palo de jeringa, Palo de Tambor, Paraíso francés, La libertad, Libertad, Palo de abejas, Palo de aceiti, Ben boom, Brenolli, Morenga, Orselli, Ceiba, Marengua, Narango, Paraíso extranjero, Teberinto, Maloko, Moloko, Ben-ailé, Perla, Perlas, Paraíso blanco, Saijhan, Benzolive, Benzolivier, Ben oleifere, Bambou-bananier, Graines benne, Olivier, Maranga calalu, Arbol de las perlas, Chinto borrgo, Flor de Jacinto, Jacinto, Paraíso blanco, Paraíso de Espana, Perla, Perlas, Perla de la India, Perlas del oriente, San Jacinto, Maranjo, Marangon, Jacinto, Colirio, Jasmin francés, Resada, Sen de la tierra, Peperwortel boom, Kelor, Saijan, Aceite de Ben, Azucarillo, Arbol do los aspáragos, Bamboubamamoer, Cedro, Cenauro, Chinto borrego, Chuva de prata, Desengaño, Gailito, Guaireña, Hoja de sen, Macasar, Marenque, Moongay, Moriengo, Noz de bem, Orenga, Palo de geringa, Palo jeringa, Paraíso, Pois quinique, Quiabo de tres quinas, Sainto John, Salaster, Salibau, Sen, Seringa.
African Common Name Meanings In English:
“The tree of paradise”, “the tree with tender/slim leaves”, “feeble tree”, “easily broken”, “one will never lack a child in the courtyard”, “White man’s tree”, “illness tree”, “wonderful news”, “cannot be killed by the dry season” and “the tree which grows crazily”.
Moringa Oleifera Data Links:
Bing Images – Dave’s Garden - eFloras – Eat The Weeds - Extension 2 – Google Search – Jatropha World – Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center – PubMed - Trees For Life Journal – USDA - Wikipedia
Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing Profile for Moringa
Moringa oleifera: A Multi-Purpose Tree
Growing & Processing Moringa Leaves
Cultivation of medicinal plants in alley cropping system with Moringa oleifera in the Virgin Islands
Suggested cultural practices for Moringa
Moringa Oleifera Lam. – USDA Forest Service
Use of Moringa Spray as Plant Growth Stimulant
Moringa Botany Citations:
Introduction and varietal screening of drumstick tree (Moringa spp.) for horticultural traits and adaptation in Taiwan
Genetic diversity in drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) germplasm
Physiological responses of drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lamk) to varying levels of ESP
A new disease of Moringa oleifera in India
Moringa oleifera Lam. – a new host of Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum E. F. Smith from India
Drip irrigation in annual moringa [Moringa oleifera]
Morphological and cytological characterization of Moringa collection of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Taiwan
Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution
Effect of seed maturity on germination and desiccation tolerance of Moringa oleifera seed Cultivation of medicinal plants in alley cropping system with Moringa oleifera in the Virgin Islands
Suggested cultural practices for moringa
Observation plot for indigenous vegetables
Biodiversity and agricultural productivity enhancement in Nigeria: application of processed Moringa oleifera seeds for improved organic farming
Meiotic behavior and pollen viability in Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) cultivated in southern Brazil
Clonal micropropagation of Moringa oleifera L.
Adaptability and horticultural characterization of Moringa accessions under central Phillippines conditions
Horticultural characterization and propagation of Moringa germplasm at AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center
A study of the initial establishment of multi – purpose moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) at various plant densities, their effect on biomass accumulation and leaf yield when grown as vegetable
Clonal Micropropagation of Moringa oleifera L.
Rapid in vitro regeneration method for Moringa oleifera and performance evaluation of field grown nutritionally enriched tissue cultured plants
Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses
Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence of It’s Properties
Indigenous vegetables play a great role to overcome poverty levels in flood and hunger prone areas of Bangladesh
Moringa: a indigenous minor vegetable can play a great role in nutrition and poverty alleviation in North Western Region of Bangladesh
Glucosinolates in leaves of Moringa species grown and disseminated in Niger
Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities
In vitro bioavailabilities of iron from Moringa oleifera leaves and other vegetables
Effects of dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera on growth performance, blood characteristics and immune response in broilers
Glucosinolates in Moringa stenopetala
Extraction and identification of natural antioxidant from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree variety of Malawi
Effect of low pH condition on antioxidant activity of Cassia tora, Cassia sophera, Cedrela sinensis, Ipomoea batatas, Moringa oleifera, Rosemarinus officinalis
Nutritional and functional properties of moringa leaves – from germplasm to plant, to food, to health
The antibiotic principle of seeds of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala
Antioxidant activity of the crude extracts of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) and sweet broomweed (Scoparia dulcis L.) leaves
Effects of dehydrated methanol extracts of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves and three of its fractions on growth performance and feed nutrient assimilation in aquaculture Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.))
Studies on HPLC profile and antifungal properties of various leaf extracts of drumstick (Moringa oleifera L.)
Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera
In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves
Stability of carotenoids in leaves of amaranth, chayote, kang-kong, lettuce, moringa and sweet potato after boiling
Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity
Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera L., grown in Ghana
Effect of dehydration on the nutritive value of drumstick leaves
Toxicity of Moringa oleifera seed extract on some hematological and biochemical profiles in a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio
Unusual glycosides of pyrrole alkaloid and 4-hydroxyphenylethanamide from leaves of Moringa oleifera
In-vitro hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. leave on isolated rat hepatocytes
Effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera
Effect of brewing time and temperature on the release of manganese and oxalate from lipton tea and Azadirachta Indica (Neem), Phyllanthus Amarus and Moringa Oleifera blended leaves
Determination of chemical composition and nutritional values of Moringa oleifera leaves
Toxicity of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seed powder to Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (LINNE I779), fingerlings
Development of crackers from cassava and sweetpotato flours using Moringa oleifera and Ipomoea batatas leaves as fortificant
Efficiency of Moringa oleifera dietary supplement reducing lead toxicity in Puntius altus
Anti-inflammatory properties of Moringa Oleifera
Moringa oleifera and Cratylia argentea Potential Fodder Species
Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera
Moringa oleifera as a fodder
Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses
Water clarification using Moringa Oleifera seed coagulant
MORINGA: A BOTANICAL PHARMACOPOEIA
Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma
Dedifferentiation of leaf explants and antileukemia activity of an ethanolic extract of cell cultures of Moringa oleifera
Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells
Antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Pseuderanthemum palatiferum (Nees) Radlk extracts on the colon cancer cells
Cancer Treatment Moringa Oleifera for Cancer Prevention or Treatment
Seed Oil & Biofuel Citations:
Seed yield components, oil content, and fatty acid composition of two cultivars of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) growing in the Arid Chaco of Argentina
Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production
Oil and fatty acid diversity in genetically variable clones of Moringa oleifera from India
Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan
Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils
Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya
Vegetable oil production potential from Jatropha curcas, Croton megalocarpus, Aleurites moluccana, Moringa oleifera and Pachira glabra: Assessment of renewable energy resources for bio-energy production in Africa
Kinetics of drumstick leaves(Moringa oleifera) during convective drying
Effects of moisture content and temperature on the specific heat of soya bean, Moringa oleifera seed and Mucuna flagellipes nut
Biofuel, Water Purification & Pollution Phytoremediation Citations:
Use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural adsorbent for wastewater treatment
Water treatment by sedimentation and slow fabric filtration using Moringa oleifera seeds
Comparison of single-step and two-step purified coagulants from Moringa oleifera seed for turbidity and DOC removal
Water clarification using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant: Maiduguri raw water as a case study
The influenced of PAC, zeolite, and Moringa oleifera as biofouling reducer (BFR) on hybrid membrane bioreactor of palm oil mill effluent (POME)
Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulant for water purification
Cadmium sorption by Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera seed powders: Batch, time, temperature, pH and adsorption isotherm studies
Antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala methanol and n-hexane seed extracts on bacteria implicated in water borne diseases
Coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera for removal of turbidity and reduction of total coliform as compared to aluminum sulfate
Mechanisms for biosorption of chromium(III), copper(II) and mercury(II) using water extracts of Moringa oleifera seed powder
Harvesting surface rainwater purification using Moringa oleifera seed extracts and aluminum sulfate
SEEDS FOR SOFTENING MORINGA OLEIFERA HARDWATER
Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulant for water
Surfactant-polluted surface water treatment with Moringa oleifera
Plant Germplasm (definition): Any portion of genetic material that can be grown into a live plant. Examples include seeds, stem cuttings (via many methods including air layering), root cuttings, root divisions (multiplication via division), leaf cuttings, leaf fragments (in tissue culture), rooted nodes (vines), “eyes” (offshoots from potato tubers), cacti pieces, etc. The term germplasm can also be used to describe a collection of genetic resources for an organism such as as a seed collection or, for trees, a nursery.EXCLUSIVE: All live plants, bulbs and recalcitrant seeds are regularly inoculated with numerous strains of beneficial symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi & bacteria (listed below) essential for strong healthy plant roots. Generally this is one of the last aspects of horticultural science that gardeners learn about when it should be the first. Beneficial Ectomycorrhiza: Laccaria bicolor, Laccaria laccata, Pisiolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon amylopogon, Rhizopogon fulvigleba, Rhizopogon luteolus, Rhizopogon roseolus, Rhizopogon subcaerulescens, Rhizopogon villosulus, Rhizopogon vulgaris, Scleroderma cepa, Scleroderma citrinni, Suillus granulatus, Suillus punctatepies Beneficial Endomycorrhiza: Gigaspora brasilianum, Gigaspora margarita, Gigaspora monosporum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus deserticola, Glomus entunicatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus monosporum, Glomus mosseae Beneficial Tricoderma: Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii Beneficial Bacteria: Acidovorax facilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter polymxa, Bacillus azotoformans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Cellulomonas flavigena, Paenibacillus dorum, Paenibacillus florescence, Paenibacillus gordonae, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Psuedomonas aureofaceans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of these strains are available in water soluble form in "Myco Madness" (available here at M.S.B.). MASS SPECTRUM BOTANICALS (Tampa, Florida): Germplasm Factory - Micronursery - Commercial Seed Bank Areas of Intent & Expertise: >Custom heirloom vegetable seed vaults.
>Live Plants of a useful nature (exotic fruits, tactical landscaping plants, etc.).
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>Rare edible perennial jungle plants (green leafy vegetable year round tropical plants).
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>Complimentary Cancer Survival medicinal plants;
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>Laboratory-spec seed sprouting, germination & vegetative propagation kits.
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